Zur christlichen Terminologie bei den Esten, Liven und Letten


Oskar Loorits



Abstract. On Christian terminology of Estonians, Livonians, and Latvians. This paper deals with the origins of the Christian terminology in the languages spoken in Old Livonia, i.e. Estonian, Livonian (both Finno-Ugric) and Latvian (Baltic, Indo-European). The older Christian layers of the Estonian, Livonian, and Latvian languages show that the first contacts with Christianity were with the Greek-Catholic Church through Russian and Byelorussian missionaries in 1000–1200. It is also argued that the mission was religious-cultural and peaceful. It was followed by the Roman-Catholic military (re-)christianisation in the form of a crusade with fire and sword.


Keywords: language contacts, religion, God, Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, Holy Spirit, heaven, hell, the Evil One, concept of sin, redemption, resurrection