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  Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

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Gill rakers and teeth of three pleuronectiform species (Teleostei) of the Baltic Sea: a microichthyological approach; pp. 21–46

(Full article in PDF format) https://doi.org/10.3176/earth.2017.01


Authors

Tiiu Märss, Mark V. H. Wilson, Toomas Saat, Heli Špilev

Abstract

In this microichthyological study the teeth and bony cores of gill rakers of three pleuronectiform species [European plaice Pleuronectes platessa Linnaeus, 1758 and European flounder Platichthys flesus trachurus (Duncer, 1892), both in the Pleuronectidae, and turbot Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Scophthalmidae] of the Baltic Sea are SEM imaged, described and compared for the first time. The shape and number of teeth in jaws and on pharyngeal tooth plates as well as the shape, size and number of the bony cores of gill rakers in these taxa differ. The European plaice and European flounder carry incisiform teeth anteriorly in their jaws and smoothly rounded, molariform teeth on pharyngeal tooth plates; the teeth of the plaice are more robust. The gill rakers have similar gross morphology, occurring as separate conical thornlets on gill arches. The bony cores of these thornlets (rakers) consist of vertical ribs with connective segments between them. The cores of gill rakers of the plaice and flounder reveal some differences in details. The plaice has cores with one peak, simple vertical ribs, and nodules on their lower thicker parts, while the flounder has cores with a side-branch and fine vertical ribs, which have parallel ribbing and tend to twist around the lower part of cores. The teeth of the jaws and pharyngeal tooth plates and the raker cores of the turbot are completely different from those of the plaice and flounder. In the turbot two main types of complex gill rakers are attached to the gill arches: one type has ‘sail’-shaped, high elements with one to two rows of fine conical teeth set in sockets; the other type has low tubercles with the same type of teeth. The differences among the species can be useful for studies of taxonomy and phylogeny, as well as for understanding their feeding habits.

Keywords

Pleuronectiformes, teeth, gill rakers, Baltic Sea, microichthyology, SEM study.

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Current Issue: Vol. 67, Issue 3, 2018




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