headerpos: 9460
 
 
  Estonian Journal of Ecology

ISSN 1736-7549 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-602X (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Biology, Ecology
(ISSN 1406-0914)
Published since 1952
 

Estonian Journal of Ecology

ISSN 1736-7549 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-602X (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences: Biology, Ecology
(ISSN 1406-0914)
Published since 1952
 

Publisher
Journal Information
» Abstractring/Indexing
List of Issues
» 2014
» 2013
Vol. 62, Issue 4
Vol. 62, Issue 3
Vol. 62, Issue 2
Vol. 62, Issue 1
» 2012
» 2011
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
» 2007
» Back Issues
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
Publisher
» Other Journals
» Staff

Humus cover and its fabric depending on pedo-ecological conditions and land use: an Estonian approach to classification of humus forms; pp. 6–23

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/eco.2013.1.02


Authors

Raimo Kõlli, Indrek Tamm

Abstract

The fabric of humus cover (HC) may be very variegated, depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (origin and composition of deposits, topography, moisture regime, soil climate, plant cover composition). This multiplicity can be expressed by the HC types (or humus forms). On natural areas, where the HC is formed as a result of long-term equilibrated mutual influences of soil cover and plant cover, the fabric and properties of the HC may be used as an ecological indicator in the evaluation of the functioning character and intensity of the soil–plant system (or also the whole ecosystem). In Estonia, besides natural areas, the classifications of HCs are also elaborated for arable areas. Regardless of the profound changes in the fabric of the HC occurring with land-use change (from natural land to arable and vice versa), certain inherited properties are sustained in newly formed HCs. In this paper the fabric and properties (thickness, carbon and nitrogen stocks) of the main HC types (19 in total) are analysed and ecological aspects of HC formation are explained. Data on tree layer taxation, agro-chemical parameters of the soil cover, and ground vegetation productivity are presented with the HC types used as the ecological background. The relationships of soil cover with soil and forest site type are analysed against the background of soil matrix tables and ordination net of forest sites, respectively. Comparative analysis of the Estonian HC classification with the European Reference Base for humus forms (ERB) showed a relatively good correspondence of the Estonian classification of HC types with ERB’s humus forms.

Keywords

European Reference Base for humus forms, forest site type, humus cover classification, humus cover type, humus form, land-use change, soil cover.

References

AFES. 1998. A Sound Reference Base for Soils: The “Referential Pedologique”. INRA , Paris.

Chertov , O. G. 1966. About characterization of humus profile types of podzolic soils in Leningrad Province. Pochvovedenie , 3 , 26–37 (in Russian).

Chertov , O. G. & Razumovsky , S. M. 1980. On ecological trends of soil forming processes. Journal of General Biology , XLI(3) , 386–396 (in Russian).

Dergacheva , M. I. 1985. Soil Organic Matter , Statics and Dynamics. Nauka , Novosibirsk (in Russian).

Galvan , P. , Ponge , J.-F. , Chersich , S. & Zanella , A. 2008. Humus components and soil biogenic structures in Norway spruce ecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal , 72(2) , 548–557.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2006.0317

Graefe , U. & Beylich , A. 2006. Humus forms as tool for upscaling soil biodiversity data to landscape level? Mitteilungen der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft , 108 , 6–7.

IUSS [IUSS Working Group WRB]. 2007. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. 2nd edn , first update 2007. World Soil Resources Reports 103. Rome.

Jabiol , B. , Brêthes , A. , Ponge , J.-F. , Toutain , F. & Brun , J.-J. 1995. L’Humus sous toutes ses formes. ENGREF , Nancy.

Karpachevskij , L. O. 1982. Modern approaches to classification of forest litter. In Biogeo­tsenologicheskie issledovaniya v lesakh yuzhnoj Sikhote-Alinya [Biogeocenological Studies in Forests of Southern Sikhote-Alin] , pp. 5–12. Vladivostok (in Russian).

Katchinsky , N. A. 1965. Soil Physics. Vol. I. Moscow State University , Moscow (in Russian).

Koshel¢kov , S. P. 1961. Formation and subdivision of litters in southern taiga forests. Pochvovedenie , 10 , 19–29 (in Russian).

Kõlli , R. 1985. Metsamullateaduse välipraktika [Field Practice on Forest Soil Science]. EPA , Tartu (in Estonian).

Kõlli , R. 1987. Pedoecological Analysis of Phytoproductivity , Biogeochemical Fluxes of Substances and Humus Status in Natural and Cultivated Ecosystems. Doctoral thesis. Estonian Agri­cultural Academy , Tartu (in Russian).

Kõlli , R. 1992. Production and ecological characteristics of organic matter of forest soils. Eurasian Soil Science , 24 , 78–91.

Kõlli , R. 2009. Pedo-ecological characterization of Estonian soils. http://mullad.emu.ee/cd-d/CD-4/DATA/index_eng.htm (visited 03.10.2012).

Kõlli , R. 2011. Euroopa huumusvormide klassifikatsiooni väljatöötamisest [About elaboration of European humus forms’ classification]. In Agronomy 2010/2011. EMI-EMÜ-JSI , Saku (in Estonian).

Lõhmus , E. 2006. Eesti metsakasvukohatüübid [Estonian Forest Site Types]. Eesti Loodusfoto , Tartu (in Estonian).

Müller , P. E. 1887. Studien über die natürlichen Humusformen und deren Einwirkung auf Vegetation und Boden. Springer , Berlin.

Prusinkiewicz , Z. 1988. Multilingual Dictionary of Forest Humus Terms. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe , Warszawa.

Puri , B. & Murari , K. 1964. Studies in surface-area measurements of soils , 2. Surface area from a single point on the water isoterm. Soil Science , 97 , 341–343.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-196405000-00008

Rodin , L. E. , Remezov , N. P. & Bazilevich , N. I. 1968. Methodological Instructions for the Study of Dynamics and Biological Turnover in Phytocoenosis. Nauka , Moscow (in Russian).

Rozanov , B. G. 1983. Soil Morphology. Moscow University Press , Moscow (in Russian).

Sapozhnikov , A. P. 1984. Forest litter: nomenclature , classification , and indexing. Pochvovedenie , 5 , 96–105 (in Russian).

Soil and Plant Analysis Council. 1992. Handbook on Reference Methods for Soil Analysis. Athens , Georgia.

Soil Survey Staff. 2010. Keys to Soil Taxonomy , 11th edn. USDA-NRCS , Washington.

Van Delft , B. , de Waal , R. , Kemmers , R. , Mekkink , P. & Sevink , J. 2006. Field Guide Humus Forms , Description and Classification of Humus Forms for Ecological Applications. Alterra , Wageningen.

Vorobyova , L. A. 1998. Chemical Analysis of Soils. Moscow University Press , Moscow (in Russian).

Wilde , S. A. 1971. Forest humus: its classification on a genetic basis. Soil Science , 111(1) , pp. 1–12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-197101000-00001

Zanella , A. , Jabiol , B. , Ponge , J. F. , Sartori , G. , de Waal , R. , Van Delft , B. et al. 2009. Toward a European humus forms reference base. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali , 85 , 145–151.

Zanella , A. , Jabiol , B. , Ponge , J. F. , Sartori , G. , de Waal , R. , Van Delft , B. et al. 2010. A European Reference Base for Humus Forms: Proposal for a morpho-functional classification. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/54/14/96/PDF/Humus_Forms_ERB.pdf (visited 01.10.2012).

Zanella , A. , Jabiol , B. , Ponge , J. F. , Sartori , G. , de Waal , R. , Van Delft , B. et al. 2012. A European morpho-functional classification of humus forms. Geoderma , 164 , 138–145.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.05.016

Zonn , S. V. 1964. Soil as a component of forest biogeocenosis. In Osnovy lesnoj biogeotsenologii [Fundamentals of Forest Biogeocenology] , pp. 372–457. Nauka , Moscow–Leningrad (in Russian).

Zonn , S. V. 1983. Modern Problems of the Genesis and Geography of Soils. Nauka , Moscow (in Russian).

 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 63, Issue 4, 2014




Publishing schedule:
No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December