headerpos: 9353
 
 
  Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Publisher
Journal Information
» Editorial Board
» Editorial Policy
» Article Publication Charges
» Archival Policy
» Copyright and Licensing Policy
Guidelines for Authors
» Instructions to Authors
Guidelines for Reviewers
» Review Form
Open Access
List of Issues
» 2019
» 2018
» 2017
» 2016
» 2015
» 2014
» 2013
» 2012
Vol. 61, Issue 4
Vol. 61, Issue 3
Vol. 61, Issue 2
Vol. 61, Issue 1
» 2011
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
» 2007
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google Ecology
» Back issues in ETERA
Keemia. Geoloogia
» ETERA_scan
Subscription Information
Internet Links
Support & Contact
Publisher
» Other Journals
» Staff

Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia; pp. 181–190

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/earth.2012.3.04


Authors

Mariina Hiiob, Enn Karro

Abstract

Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters) in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1). Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

Keywords

iron, manganese, water treatment, groundwater, Middle Devonian aquifer system.

References

Appelo , C. A. J. & Postma , D. 2005. Geochemistry , Ground­water and Pollution. Balkema , Rotterdam , 649 pp.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781439833544

Baes , C. F. Jr. & Mesmer , R. E. 1976. The Hydrolysis of Cations. Wiley , New York , 489 pp.

Birk , K. 2010. Eesti joogivesi 2009 [Estonian drinking water 2009]. Keskkonnatehnika , 5 , 13–16 [in Estonian].

Dvorak , B. I. , Prasai , G. , Skipton , S. O. & Woldt , W. 2007. Drinking water: iron and manganese. NebGuide – University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension Publications , G1714 , 1–4.

[EC] European Communities. 1998. Council directive 98/83/EC – on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Official Journal of the European Communities , L 330 , 05/12/1998 , 0032–0054.

Forte , M. , Bagnato , L. , Caldognetto , E. , Risica , S. , Trotti , F. & Rusconi , R. 2010. Radium isotopes in Estonian ground­water: measurements , analytical correlations , population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy. Journal of Radiological Protection , 30 , 761–780.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/30/4/009

Green , A. 1997. The right mix for a greensand cocktail. Water Technology , 20 , 1–7.

Hem , J. 1985. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural waters. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper , 2254 , 1–263.

Homoncik , S. C. , MacDonald , A. M. , Heal , K. V. , Dochartaigh , B. É. Ó. & Ngwenya , B. T. 2010. Manganese concentrations in Scottish groundwater. Science of the Total Environ­ment , 408 , 2467–2473.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.02.017

Karise , V. , Metsur , M. , Perens , R. , Savitskaja , L. & Tamm , I. 2004. Eesti põhjavee kasutamine ja kaitse [Estonian Groundwater Usage and Protection]. Tallinn , 80 pp. [in Estonian].

Karro , E. & Uppin , M. 2010. Siluri–ordoviitsiumi veeladestu fluoriidide ja boori geoloogilised allikad [Fluoride and boron in the Silurian–Ordovician aquifer system]. Kesk­konna­tehnika , 3 , 25–27 [in Estonian].

Karro , E. , Marandi , A. , Vaikmäe , R. & Uppin , M. 2009. Chemical peculiarities of Silurian–Ordovician and Cambrian–Vendian aquifer systems in Estonia: an overview of hydrochemical studies. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 58 , 342–352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/earth.2009.4.12

Keller , M. C. 2005. Basic ion exchange for residential water treatment. Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine , 47 , 17–21.

Kornel , K. 2002. Veepuhastusfilter puurkaevu juures – sääst­lik lahendus kvaliteetse joogivee saamiseks [Water purification filter on a well – economical solution for high-quality drinking water]. Keskkonnatehnika , 1 , 16–18 [in Estonian].

Kornel , K. 2003. Veepuhastusfiltrid ühisveevarustuse puur­kaevudel [Water purification filters on wells of a connected water system]. Keskkonnatehnika , 5 , 56–57 [in Estonian].

[MSA] Ministry of Social Affairs. 2001. Joogivee kvaliteedi- ja kontrollinõuded ning analüüsimeetodid [The quality and monitoring requirements for drinking water and methods of analysis]. RTL 2001/100/1369 [in Estonian].

Munter , R. , Kallas , J. , Trapido , M. , Veressinina , Y. & Loorits , H. 2000. Estonian ground water: quality problems and possible technology for improvement. In Proceedings of International Conference EcoBalt 2000 , 26–27 May , Riga , Latvia , pp. 17–27.

Perens , R. & Vallner , L. 1997. Water-bearing formation. In Geology and Mineral Resources of Estonia (Raukas , A. & Teedumäe , A. , eds) , pp. 137–145. Estonian Academy Publishers , Tallinn.

Perens , R. , Savva , V. , Lelgus , M. & Parm , T. 2001. The Hydrogeochemical Atlas of Estonia. Geological Survey of Estonia , Tallinn [CD version].

Ponka , P. , Tenenbein , M. & Eaton , J. W. 2007. Iron. In Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Friberg , L. , Nordberg , G. F. , Fowler , B. A. , Nordberg , M. &. Friberg , L. T. , eds) , pp. 577–598. Elsevier , Amsterdam.

Rehema , A. , Zilmer , M. , Zilmer , K. , Kullisaar , T. & Viha­lemm , T. 1998. Could long-term alimentary iron over­load have an impact on the parameters of oxidative stress? A study on the basis of a village in South Estonia. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism , 42 , 40–43.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000012716

Saava , A. 1998. Health hazards due to drinking water. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences , 52 , 162–167.

Sutt , J. 2003. Hinnang OÜ Vee-Eksperdi poolt paigaldatud joogivee puhastuse seadmetele [Evaluation of Drinking Water Purification Systems Installed by Vee-Ekspert]. Manuscript in the Environmental Board [in Estonian].

 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 68, Issue 3, 2019




Publishing schedule:

No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December