headerpos: 9353
 
 
  Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Publisher
Journal Information
» History
» Editorial Policy
» Editorial Board
» Abstracting/Indexing
Guidelines for Authors
» For Authors
» Instructions to Authors
» Copyright Transfer Form
Guidelines for Reviewers
» For Reviewers
» Review Form
List of Issues
» 2014
» 2013
» 2012
Vol. 61, Issue 4
Vol. 61, Issue 3
Vol. 61, Issue 2
Vol. 61, Issue 1
» 2011
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
» 2007
» Back Issues
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
Subscription Information
Internet Links
Support & Contact
Publisher
» Other Journals
» Staff

Hirnantia sagittifera (Brachiopoda) and Mucronaspis mucronata s.l. (Trilobita) in the Upper Ordovician of the East Baltic: taxonomy and distribution; pp. 65–81

(Full article in PDF format)   doi: 10.3176/earth.2012.2.01


Authors

Linda Hints, Helje Pärnaste, Lilita-Ilga Gailite†

Abstract

The brachiopod Hirnantia sagittifera (M’Coy) and trilobite morphs of the genus Mucronaspis from the topmost Ordovician Porkuni Stage of the central East Baltic are described and compared with those from the Hirnantian Stage of other regions. These important Hirnantian taxa occur in the Livonian Tongue of the Central Baltoscandian Facies Belt of the Baltic Basin, where the Porkuni Stage is represented by the non-graptolitic Kuldiga and Saldus formations. Hirnantia sagittifera appears in the lowermost part of the Porkuni Stage and is rather widely distributed in the basin in spite of its rare finds in each locality. Our study of trilobites of the genus Mucronaspis has enabled us to observe morphological changes in its exoskeleton in time and to identify a succession of five morphotypes (morphs). In some characteristics these morphs are similar to those of different alleged species of the genus Mucronaspis (M. olini, M. danai, M. ganabina, M. mucronata) but they cannot be definitely assigned to any of these species due to some variances. However, here for the first time a stratigraphically ordered collection is presented, which deserves attention in revising the taxonomy of highly variable Mucronaspis. The described brachiopods and trilobites occur mainly in the strata correlated with the Normalograptus extraordinarius graptolite Biozone. However, the uppermost finds of both taxa come from strata correlated with the N. persculptus Biozone.

Keywords

Brachiopoda, Trilobita, taxonomy, Upper Ordovician, East Baltic.

References

Ainsaar , L. , Kaljo , D. , Martma , T. , Meidla , T. , Männik , P. , Nõlvak , J. & Tinn , O. 2010. Middle and Upper Ordovician carbon isotope chemostratigraphy in Baltoscandia: a correlation standard and clues to environmental history. Palaeogeography , Palaeoclimatology , Palaeoecology , 294 , 189–201.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.01.003

Amstrong , H. A. 2007. On the cause of the Ordovician glaciation. In Deep-Time Perspectives on Climate Change. Marrying the Signal from Computer Models and Biological Proxies (Williams , M. , Haywood , A. M. , Gregory , F. J. & Schmidt , D. N. , eds) , pp. 101–122. Geological Society of London.

Barrande , J. 1852. Systême Silurien du centre de la Bohême. I ère Partie. Recherches paléontologiques , I: Trilobites. Prague and Paris , 935 pp.

Benedetto , J. L. 1986. The first typical Hirnantia fauna from South America (San Juan Province , Argentine Precordillera). Biostratigraphie du Paléozoïque , 4 , 439–447.

Benedetto , J. L. 2002. The Ordovician brachiopod faunas of Argentina: chronology and biostratigraphic succession. In Aspects of the Ordovician System in Argentina (Aceñolaza , F. G. , ed.) , INSUGEO , Serie Correlación Geológica , 16 , 87–106.

Bergström , J. 1968. Upper Ordovician Brachiopods from Västergötland , Sweden. Geologica et Palaeontologica , 2 , 1–35.

Bergström , J. 1982. Scania. In Field Excursion Guide. IV International Symposium on the Ordovician System (Bruton , D. L. & Williams , S. H. , eds) , Paleontological Contributions from the University of Oslo , 279 , 184–197.

Bergström , S. M. & Bergström , J. 1996. The Ordovician–Silurian boundary successions in Östergötland and Västergötland , S. Sweden. GFF , 118 , 25–42.

Bergström , S. M. , Huff , W. , Koren , T. , Larsson , K. , Ahlberg , P. & Kolata , D. R. 1999. The 1997 core drilling through Ordovician and Silurian strata at Röstånga , S. Sweden: preliminary stratigraphic assessment and regional comparison. GFF , 121 , 127–135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11035899901212127

Boucot , A. J. , Rong , J. Y. , Chen , X. & Scotese , C. R. 2003. Pre-Hirnantian Ashgill climatically warm event in the Mediterranean region. Lethaia , 36 , 119–132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00241160310001245

Brenchley , P. J. & Cocks , L. R. M. 1982. Ecological associations in a regressive sequence: the latest Ordovician of the Oslo-Asker district , Norway. Palaeontology , 25 , 783–815.

Brenchley , P. J. , Carden , G. A. , Hints , L. , Kaljo , D. , Marshall , J. D. , Martma , T. , Meidla , T. & Nõlvak , J. 2003. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of Upper Ordovician sequences: constraints on the timing of bioevents and environmental changes associated with mass extinction and glaciation. GSA Bulletin , 115 , 89–104.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2003)115<0089:HRSISO>2.0.CO;2

Brenchley , P. J. , Marshall , J. D. , Harper , D. A. T. , Buttler , C. J. & Underwood , C. J. 2006. A late Ordovician (Hirnantian) karstic surface in the submarine channel , recording glacio-eustatic sea-level changes: Meifod , central Wales. Geological Journal , 41 , 1–22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gj.1029

Brongniart , A. 1822. Les Trilobites. In Histoire naturelle des Crustacés fossiles , sous les rapports zoölogiques et géologiques (Brongniart , A. & Desmarest , A.-G. , eds). Paris & Strasbourg , 154 pp.

Budil , P. 1996. Representatives of genera Mucronaspis and Sonxites (Trilobita) from the Bohemian Upper Ordo­vician. Journal of the Czech Geological Society , 41 , 63–78.

Chen , X. , Rong , J. Y. , Mitchell , C. E. , Harper , D. A. T. , Fan , J. , Zhan , R. B. , Zhang , Y. , Li , R. & Wang , Y. 2000. Late Ordovician to earliest Silurian graptolite and brachiopod biozonation from the Yangtze region , South China , with a global correlation. Geological Magazine , 137 , 623–650.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800004702

Chen , X. , Rong , J. Y. , Fan , J. , Zhan , R. B. , Mitchell , C. E. , Harper , D. A. T. , Melchin , M. J. , Peng , P. , Finney , S. C. & Wang , X. 2006. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Hirnantian Stage (the uppermost of the Ordovician System). Episodes , 29 , 183–196.

Chugaeva , M. N. 1983. Trilobites. In Granitsa ordovika i silura na severo-vostoke SSSR [The Ordovician and Silurian Boundary in the Northeast of the USSR] (Koren¢ , T. N. , Oradovskaya , M. M. , Põlma , L. J. , Sobolevskaya , R. F. & Chugaeva , M. N. , eds) , pp. 73–97. Nauka , Leningrad [in Russian].

Cocks , L. R. M. 1982. The commoner brachiopods of the latest Ordovician of the Oslo-Asker district , Norway. Palaeontology , 25 , 755–781.

Cocks , L. R. M. 2008. A revised review of British Lower Palaeozoic brachiopods. Monograph of the Palaeonto­logical Society London , 1–276 , pls 1–10 (Publ. No. 629 , part of vol. 161 for 2007).

Cocks , L. R. M. & Price , D. 1975. The biostratigraphy of the upper Ordovician and lower Silurian of the south-west Dyfed , with comments on the Hirnantia fauna. Palae­ontology , 18 , 703–724.

Cocks , L. R. M. & Torsvik , T. H. 2002. Earth geography from 500 to 400 million years ago: a faunal and palaeo­magnetic review. Journal of the Geological Society , London , 159 , 631–644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/0016-764901-118

Dalman , J. W. 1828. Nya Svenska Paleader. Årsberättelse om nyare Zoologiska Arbaten och Upptäckter , till Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademien , 134-5 , Stockholm.

Delo , D. M. 1935. A revision of the phacopid trilobites. Journal of Paleontology , 9 , 402–420.

Destombes , J. 1963. Quelques nouveaux Phacopina (trilobites) de l’Ordovicien superieur de l’Anti-Atlas (Maroc). Notes et Memoires , Service Geologique Maroc , 23(172) , 47–56 , pls 1–4.

Ebbestad , J. O. & Högström , A. E. S. 2007. Ordovician of the Siljan District , Sweden. Rapporter och meddelanden. Sveriges geologiska undersökning , 128 , 7–26.

Gailite , L. 1968. Paleontologicheskaya kharakteristika pogranichnykh otlozhenij ordovika i silura v Latvii [Paleontological characteristic of adjacent Ordovician and Silurian deposits in Latvia]. In Stratigrafiya nizhnego paleozoya Pribaltiki i korrelyatsiya s drugimi regionami [Stratigraphy of the Baltic Lower Paleozoic and its Correlation with Other Areas] (Grigelis , A. , ed.) , pp. 130–138. Mintis , Vilnius [in Russian , with English summary].

Harper , D. A. T. 2000. Dalmanellinae. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Pt. H: Brachiopoda Revised. vol. 3: Linguliformea , Craniiformea , and Rhynchonelliformea (part) (Kaesler , R. L. , ed.) , pp. 782–844. Boulder , Colorado.

Havlíček , V. 1950. The Ordovician Brachiopoda from Bohemia. Rozpravy Ústředního Ústavu Geologického , 13 , 1–135.

Havliček , V. 1976. Evolution of Ordovician brachiopod communities in the Mediterranean Province. In The Ordovician System: Proceedings of a Palaeontological Association Symposium , Birmingham , September 1974 , pp. 349–358. University of Wales and National Museum of Wales , Cardiff.

Hints , L. 1975. Brakhiopody Enteletacea ordovika Pribaltiki [Ordovician Brachiopods Enteletacea of the East Baltic Area]. Tallinn , 119 pp. [in Russian , with English summary].

Hints , L. & Harper , D. A. T. 2002. Review of the Ordovician rhynchonelliformean Brachiopoda of the East Baltic: their distribution and biofacies. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark , 50 , 29–43.

Hints , L. , Hints , O. , Kaljo , D. , Kiipli , T. , Männik , P. , Nõlvak , J. & Pärnaste , H. 2010. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician) bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core , western Latvia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 59 , 1–24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/earth.2010.1.01

Jaanusson , V. 1963. Classification of the Harjuan (Upper Ordovician) rocks of the mainland of Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar , 85 , 110–144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11035896309448875

Jaanusson , V. 1979. Ordovician. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology , Part A , Introduction + Biogeography and Biostratigraphy (Robison , R. A. & Teichert , C. , eds) , pp. A136–A166. University of Kansas Press.

Jaanusson , V. 1982a. Introduction to the Ordovician of Sweden. In Field Excursion Guide. IV International Symposium on the Ordovician System (Bruton , D. L. & Williams , S. H. , eds) , Paleontological Contributions from the University of Oslo , 279 , 1–9.

Jaanusson , V. 1982b. The Siljan District. In Field Excursion Guide. IV International Symposium on the Ordovician System (Bruton , D. L. & Williams , S. H. , eds) , Pale­ontological Contributions from the University of Oslo , 279 , 15–42.

Jaanusson , V. 1982c. Ordovician in Västergötland. In Field Excursion Guide. IV International Symposium on the Ordovician System (Bruton , D. L. & Williams , S. H. , eds) , Paleontological Contributions from the University of Oslo , 279 , 164–183.

Jin , J. & Bergström , J. 2010. True Dalmanella and taxonomic implications for some Late Ordovician dalmanellid brachiopods from North America. GFF , 132 , 13–24.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11035891003597083

Jin , J. & Zhan , R. 2008. Late Ordovician Orthide and Billingsellide Brachiopods from Anticosti Island , Eastern Canada: Diversity Change through Mass Extinction. NRC Research Press , Ottawa , 152 pp.

Kaljo , D. , Hints , L. , Martma , T. & Nõlvak , J. 2001. Carbon isotope stratigraphy in the latest Ordovician of Estonia. Chemical Geology , 175 , 49–59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2541(00)00363-6

Kaljo , D. , Hints , L. , Männik , P. & Nõlvak , J. 2008. The succession of Hirnantian events based on data from Baltica: brachiopods , chitinozoans , conodonts , and carbon isotopes. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 57 , 197–218.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/earth.2008.4.01

Kielan , S. 1956. Stratygrafia górnego ordowiku w Górach Świętokrzyskich [On the stratigraphy of the Upper Ordovician in the Holy Cross Mountains]. Acta Geologica Polonica , 6(3) , 253–271 , consp. 55–64 [in Polish , with English summary].

Kielan , Z. 1960 (for 1959). Upper Ordovician trilobites from Poland , and some related forms from Bohemia and Scandinavia. Palaeontologia Polonica , 11 , 1–198.

Koren¢ , T. N. & Sobolevskaya , R. F. 2008. The regional stratotype section and point for the base of the Hirnantian Stage (the uppermost Ordovician) at Mirny Creek , Omulev Mountains , Northeast Russia. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 57 , 1–10.

Křiž , J. & Steinová , M. 2009. Uppermost Ordovician bivalves from the Prague Basin (Hirnantian , Perunica , Bohemia). Bulletin of Geosciences , 84 , 409–436.

Lamont , A. 1935. The Drummuck Group , Girvan , a strati­graphical revision with descriptions of new fossils from the lower part of the group. Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow , 19 , 288–334.

Lespérance , P. J. 1974. The Hirnantian Fauna of the Percé area (Quebec) and the Ordovician–Silurian boundary. American Journal of Science , 274 , 10–30.

Lespérance , P. J. 1988. Trilobites. Bulletin of the British Museum Natural History (Geology) , 43 , 359–376.

Lespérance , P. J. & Sheehan , P. M. 1976. Brachiopods from the Hirnantian stage (Ordovician–Silurian) at Percé , Quebéc. Palaeontology , 19 , 719–731.

Lin , T. R. 1981. Songxites , a new subgenus of Dalmanitina (Trilobita) from the late Upper Ordovician of Jiangxi. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica , 20 , 88–91.

Männil , R. 1966. Istoriya razvitiya baltijskogo bassejna v ordovike [Evolution of the Baltic Basin during the Ordovician]. Valgus Publishers , Tallinn , 200 pp. [in Russian , with English summary].

Marek , V. & Havliček , V. 1967. The articulated brachiopods of the Kosov Formation (Upper Ashgillian). Vēstnik Ústředního Ústavu Geologického , 42(4) , 275–284.

M’Coy , F. 1851. On some new Cambro-Silurian fossils. Annals and Magazine of Natural History , (Series 2) , 8 , 387–409.

Meek , F. B. & Worthen , A. H. 1866. Contributions of the palaeontology of Illinois and other western states. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science , Philadelphia , 17 , 245–273.

Melou , M. 1987. Découverte de Hirnantia sagittifera (M´Coy , 1851) (Orthida , Brachiopoda) dans l`Ordovicien Supérieur (Ashgillien) de l´Extrémité Occidentale du Massif Armoricin. Geobios , 20 , 679–685.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-6995(87)80022-0

Modliński , Z. 1973. Stratigraphy and development of the Ordovician in North-eastern Poland. Prace Institut Geologiczny , 72 , 1–74 , 5 pls.

Nõlvak , J. , Hints , O. , Männik , P. & Pärnaste , H. 2007. Ordovician time scale in Estonia. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica , 46 (Suppl.) , 351–356.

Olin , E. 1906. Om de Chasmopskalken och Trinucleusskiffern motsvarande bildningarne i Skåne. Lunds Universitets Årsskrift , N.F. Afhandlingar , 22(3) , 1–79.

Owen , A. W. 1981. The trilobite Mucronaspis in the uppermost Ordovician of the Oslo Region , Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift , 61 , 271–279.

Owen , A. W. , Bruton , D. L. , Bockelie , J. F. & Bockelie , T. 1990. The Ordovician successions of the Oslo Region , Norway. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse , Special Publication , 4 , 1–54.

Owens , R. M. 2004. Late Ordovician and early Silurian Proetida (Trilobita) from north-western and central Europe. Palaeontology , 47 , 557–578.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0031-0239.2004.00380.x

Paškevičius , J. 1997. The Geology of the Baltic Republics. Lietuvos geologijos tarnyba , Vilnius , 387 pp.

Paškevičienė , L. , Paškevičius , J. & Saladžius , V. 2001. The composition , distribution and evolution of Ordovician brachiopods , conodonts and acritarchs in the south-eastern part of the Baltic basin. Lithosphere , 5 , 46–53.

Podhalańska , T. 2009. The Late Ordovician Gondwana glaciation – a record of environmental changes in the depositional succession of the Baltic Depression (Northern Poland). Prace Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego , 193 , 1–132.

Reed , F. R. C. 1905. The classification of the Phacopidae. Geological Magazine , (5)2 , 172–175 , 224–228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0016756800132133

Reed , F. R. C. 1918. The genus Homalonotus. Geological Magazine , (6)5 , 55–77.

Rong , J. Y. 1979. The Hirnantian fauna of China with comments on the Ordovician–Silurian boundary. Acta Stratigraphica Sinica , 3 , 1–28.

Rong , J. Y. 1984. Brachiopods of latest Ordovician in the Yichang district , Western Hubei , Central China. In Strati­graphy and Palaeontology of Systemic Boundaries in China. Ordovician–Silurian Boundary (1) , pp. 111–176 , pls 1–14. ANHUI Science and Technology Publishing House.

Rong , J. Y. 1986. Ecostratigraphy and community analysis of Late Ordovician and Silurian in southern China. In Selected Paper Collections of the Annual Symposium of the 13th and 14th Committee of the Palaeontological Society of China (Palaeontological Society of China , ed.) , pp. 1–24. Anhui Science and Technology Press , Hefei , China [in Chinese , with English summary].

Rong , J. Y. & Harper , D. A. T. 1988. A global synthesis of latest Ordovician Hirnantian brachiopod faunas. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences , 79 , 383–402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S026359330001436X

Rong , J. Y. & Zhan , R. B. 2006. Surviving the end-Ordovician extinctions: evidence from the earliest Silurian brachiopods of northeastern Jiangxi and western Zhejiang provinces , East China. Lethaia , 39 , 39–48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00241160500443164

Rong , J. Y. , Chen , X. & Harper , D. A. T. 2002. The latest Ordovician Hirnantia Fauna (Brachiopoda) in time and space. Lethaia , 35 , 231–249.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00241160260288820

Schmidt , H. 1935. Das Verhältnis von Dalmanites eucentrus (Ang.) zu Dalmanites mucronatus (Brongn.) in Hinblick auf Zeit und Fazies (Gotlandium , Schweden). Senckenbergiana , 17(3/4) , 109–124.

Schmitz , B. & Bergström , S. M. 2007. Chemostratigraphy in the Swedish Upper Ordovician: regional significance of the Hirnantian δ13C excursion (HICE) in the Boda Limestone of the Siljan region. GFF , 129 , 133–140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11035890701292133

Sheng , X. 1982. On the distribution and age of the Hirnantia Fauna and Dalmanitina Beds in China. Bulletin of the Institute of Geology , Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences , 6 , 33–56.

Šnajdr , M. 1987. New Bohemian Dalmanitidae and Calmonidae (Trilobita). Věstník Ústředního Ústavu Geologického , 65(5) , 271–277.

Štorch , P. & Lloydell , D. K. 1996. The Hirnantian graptolites Normalograptus persculptus and ‘Glyptograptus bohemicus: stratigraphical consequences of their synonymy. Palaeontology , 39 , 869–881.

Suzuki , Y. , Shiino , Y. & Bergström , J. 2009. Stratigraphy , carbonate facies and trilobite associations in the Hirnantian part of the Boda Limestone , Sweden. GFF , 131 , 299–310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11035890903452670

Temple , J. T. 1952. A revision of the trilobite Dalmanitina mucronata (Brongniart) and related species. Lunds Universitet Årsskrift , n.f. , 48(1) , 1–33 , pls 1–4.

Temple , J. T. 1965. Upper Ordovician Brachiopods from Poland and Britain. Acta Paleontologica Polonica , 10 , 379–450.

Troedsson , G. T. 1918. Om Skånes brachiopodskiffer. Lunds Universitets Årsskrift , N.F. 2 , 15(3) , 1–110.

Ulst , R. 1972. A local subdivision of Upper Ordovician of the middle Baltic Region. In Regional¢naya geologiya Pribaltiki i Belorussii [Regional Geology of the East Baltic and Belarus] , pp. 7–20. Zinatne , Riga [in Russian , with English summary].

Ulst , R. 1992. Succession of graptolite zones in the Silurian–Ordovician boundary beds of the wells in the continuation of the Kaliningrad elevation in the sea [Posledovatel¢nost¢ graptolitovykh zon v pogranichnykh otlozheniyakh silura i ordovika v razrezakh skvazhin na morskom prodolzhenii Kaliningradskogo vystupa]. In Paleontologiya i stratigrafiya fanerozoya Latvii i Baltijskogo morya [Phanerozoic Palaeontology and Stratigraphy of Latvia and the Baltic Sea] (Sorokin , V. S. , ed.) , pp. 139–144. Zinatne , Riga [in Russian].

Ulst , R. Z. , Gailite , L. K. & Yakovleva , V. I. 1982. Ordovik Latvii [Ordovician of Latvia]. Zinatne , Riga , 294 pp. [in Russian].

Villas , E. , Lorenzo , S. & Gutiérrez-Marco , J. C. 1999 (for 1998). First record of a Hirnantia Fauna from Spain , and its contribution to the Late Ordovician palaeogeography of northern Gondvana. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences , 89 , 187–197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0263593300007124

Vogdes , A. W. 1890. A bibliography of Paleozoic Crustacea from 1698 to 1889 including a list of North American species and a systematic arrangement of genera. United States Geological Survey Bulletin , 63 , 1–177.

Wright , A. D. 1964. The fauna of the Portrane Limestone , II. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Geology , 9 , 159–256.

Wright , A. D. 1968. A westward extension of the upper Ashgillian Hirnantia fauna. Lethaia , 1 , 352–367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1502-3931.1968.tb01626.x

Zhan , R. B. & Jin , J. 2007. Ordovician–Early Silurian (Llandovery) Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of the Upper Yangtze Platform , South China. Science Press , Beijing , 169 pp.

Zhan , R. B. , Liu , J. B. , Percival , I. G. , Jin , J. & Li , G. P. 2010. Biodiversification of Late Ordovician Hirnantia Fauna on the Upper Yangtze Platform , South China. Science China Earth Science , 53 , 1800–1810.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11430-010-4071-3

 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 63, Issue 1, 2014




Publishing schedule:

No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December