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  Linguistica Uralica

 

ISSN 1736-7506 (electronic)  ISSN 0868-4731 (print)

Published since 1965

Linguistica Uralica

 

ISSN 1736-7506 (electronic)  ISSN 0868-4731 (print)

Published since 1965

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Some Grammatical Innovations in the Development of ­Estonian and Finnish: Forced Grammaticalization; pp. 241-256

(Full article in PDF format) doi:10.3176/lu.2011.4.01


Authors

Helle Metslang

Abstract

The term forced grammaticalization (Zwangsgrammatikalisierung) was introduced by Nicole Nau, concerning the inclusion of articles into the grammars and dictionaries of old written Latvian and Estonian. The development of the standard Estonian offers many similar examples. The present ­article will discuss some examples of forced grammaticalization in Estonian and Finnish, some background factors of forced grammaticalization, and possible further developments. The study will focus on forced grammaticalization in the old written language (Estonian articles and futures, Finnish futures) and in ­Standard Estonian in the 20th and 21st centuries (synthetic preterite, synthetic superlative, case forms of the infinitive, and complex verbs). In the case of both groups of innovations the result of the adopted grammatical innovation was based on the material of the same language without prior step-by-step development and a bridging context that could lead to grammaticalization. Also, forced de-grammaticalization will be discussed briefly – hindering the development of particle negation, verbal particles, adpositions, etc. during the ­puristic standardization of Finnish.

Keywords

Estonian, Finnish, forced grammaticalization, future, article, adposi­tion, preterite, superlative, infinitive, back-formation, standard language.

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