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Acta Historica Tallinnensia

ISSN 1736-7476 (electronic)  ISSN 1406-2925 (print) 

Published since 1997

Acta Historica Tallinnensia

ISSN 1736-7476 (electronic)  ISSN 1406-2925 (print) 

Published since 1997
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WAS IT ALL PURE PROPAGANDA? JOURNALISTIC PRACTICES OF ‘SILENT RESISTANCE’ IN SOVIET ESTONIAN JOURNALISM; pp. 167–190

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/hist.2010.1.08


Authors

Epp LAUK, Tiiu KREEGIPUU

Abstract

This paper focuses on the journalistic strategies and practices that Estonian journalists and editors used for expressing both their dissent with the restrictions of the freedom of the press and opposition to the Soviet regime. As no underground dissident press existed in Estonia in the Soviet period (1940–1941 and 1944–1991), journalists developed various ways of ‘silent resistance’ within the official press. Our aim is to demonstrate and analyse journalistic practices – both discursive and editorial – that undermined the ideological purposes of Soviet journalism. At the discursive level, journalists often tried to diminish the official ideological discourse by enlarging the proportion of the apolitical journalistic discourse in the newspapers. Journalists also skilfully used various linguistic means to bypass the ‘party line’. On the editorial level, editors often passed, at their own risk, content that was not politically and ideologically ‘correct’. Censors often complained to Party headquarters about the editors who ‘tried to avoid the responsibility of editing’ and were ‘incompetent in applying the regulations and rules’.

References

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6. All translations from Estonian and Russian into English in this document are the responsibility of the authors , Epp Lauk and Tiiu Kreegipuu.

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21. Some small-scale organized dissent did , however , exist but it remained marginal as these people did not have any influence in the cultural sphere.

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31. Ibid. , 207–208.

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34. Ibid.

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40. Ibid. , 206–207.

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42. Alongside with the official history concept another , unofficial version existed that contradicted the official one. American researcher James Wertsch has studied Estonians’ understanding and interpretations of both versions in his book: Mind as Action. Oxford University Press , New York , 1998.

43. Sirp ja Vasar , 5.1.1979.

44. Sirp ja Vasar , 27.4.1979.

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49. Lauk , E. Restoring democratic discourse in the Estonian press (1987–1990) , 313–314.

50. Rummo , P. Trükisõna ja utiil [Printed papers and waste paper]. – Sirp ja Vasar , 26.1.1968 [in Estonian].

51. Lauk , E. Practice of Soviet censorship in the press. The case of Estonia , 36.

52. ENSV GLAVLIT-i juhtkonna laiendatud nõupidamine 29.1.1968 [Meeting of the leadership of the Estonian GLAVLIT on 29 January 1968]. ERA R-17-3-67 , 11 [in Estonian].

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54. Siig , A. Lasteaiatädi [The kindergarten teacher]. – Sirp ja Vasar , 10.3.1967 [in Estonian].

55. Stenogramm EKP KK büroo koosoleku protokolli nr 31 juurde 21.3.1967 [Shorthand record of the minutes of the meeting of the ECP CC Bureau no 31 , on 21 March 1967]. ERAF 1-4-3569 , 102–103 [in Estonian].

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65. Cf. Maimik , P. Tõkked ajalehtede-ajakirjade trükkimise teel enne tsensuuri kaotamist Eestis [The hindrances to the printing of newspapers and magazines before the abolishment of censorship in Estonia]. – In: Eesti ajakirjanduse ajaloost , X [On the history of Estonian journalism , X]. Ed. P. Maimik. Tartu University Press , Tartu , 1996 , 99–107 [in Estonian].

66. Hiedel , L. Loomingu Raamatukogu alaeast: märkmeid ja meenutusi [Remarks and memoires of an editor of the Literary Series Loomingu Raamatukogu]. – Vikerkaar , 1995 , 8 , 72 [in Estonian].

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68. EKP KK büroo 15. veebruari 1972. a koosoleku protokoll [Minutes of the meeting of the Bureau of the ECP CC of 15 February 1972]. ERAF 1-4-4161 , 115 [in Estonian].

69. Lauk , E. Practice of Soviet censorship in the press. The case of Estonia , 31.

70. E.g. , Hiedel , L. Loomingu Raamatukogu alaeast: märkmeid ja meenutusi , 72; Villandi , V. Toimetaja või kirjanik? [Editor or author?]. – Looming , 1991 , 4 , 541 [in Estonian].

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72. Veskimägi , K.-O. Nõukogude unelaadne elu. Tsensuur Eesti NSV-s ja tema peremehed , 263.

73. GLAVLIT-i ülema käskkiri 7.2.1975 [Decree of the Head of the GLAVLIT of 7 February 1975]. ERA R-17-1-614 , 4 [in Estonian].

74. Veskimägi , K.-O. Nõukogude unelaadne elu. Tsensuur Eesti NSV-s ja tema peremehed , 263.

75. Uus , S. Leheneegri leivas , 253–254.

76. GLAVLIT-i ülema asetäitja H. Azhnina/Laulu ettekanne Moskvasse 5.8.1966 [Report of the Deputy Head of the Estonian GLAVLIT H. Azhnina/Laul to Moscow on 5 August 1966]. ERA R-17-3-62 , 4–9 [in Estonian].

77. Ruutsoo , R. Estonia , 122.

78. Lauristin , M. , Vihalemm , P. Recent historical developments in Estonia: three stages of transition (1987–1997) , 75.

79. Wertsch , J. V. Mind as Action.

80. Aarelaid , A. Topeltmõtlemise kujunemine kahel esimesel nõukogulikul aastakümnel [Development of double thinking in the two first decades of the Soviet time]. – Akadeemia , 2000 , 4 , 755–773 [in Estonian].

81. Jakubowicz , K. Media as agents of change , 26.
 
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