headerpos: 9353
 
 
  Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences

ISSN 1736-7557 (electronic)  ISSN 1736-4728 (print)
An international scientific journal

Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Geology
Published since 1952

Publisher
Journal Information
» Editorial Board
» Editorial Policy
» Article Publication Charges
» Archival Policy
» Copyright and Licensing Policy
Guidelines for Authors
» Instructions to Authors
Guidelines for Reviewers
» Review Form
Open Access
List of Issues
» 2019
» 2018
» 2017
» 2016
» 2015
» 2014
» 2013
» 2012
» 2011
» 2010
Vol. 59, Issue 4
Vol. 59, Issue 3
Vol. 59, Issue 2
Vol. 59, Issue 1
» 2009
» 2008
» 2007
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google Ecology
» Back issues in ETERA
Keemia. Geoloogia
» ETERA_scan
Subscription Information
Internet Links
Support & Contact
Publisher
» Other Journals
» Staff

Towards quantifying variations in wind parameters across the Gulf of Finland; pp. 288–297

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/earth.2010.4.05


Authors

Sirje Keevallik, Tarmo Soomere

Abstract

Several features of the spatial structure of wind patterns over the Gulf of Finland in the NE part of the Baltic Sea are analysed on the basis of wind parameters measured at two lighthouses (Tallinnamadal near the southern coast of the gulf and Kalbådagrund near its northern coast), which are compared with the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) 6.4.0 outputs for the period of April 2007–March 2008. It is shown that both the average air flow and the wind direction turn considerably clockwise when the air masses cross the gulf obliquely. Consequently, the influence of the Estonian mainland on the wind properties over the Gulf of Finland extends at least to a distance of 20 km to the Tallinnamadal Lighthouse area but hardly reaches a distance of 60 km where Kalbådagrund is located. The HIRLAM model captures well the wind direction at Tallinna­madal, whereas at Kalbådagrund the modelled wind direction is turned by > 20° counter-clockwise from the measured direction. The HIRLAM output matches well the wind speed at Kalbådagrund, but underestimates it at Tallinnamadal by more than 1 m/s.

Keywords

wind speed, wind direction, air flow, Gulf of Finland, HIRLAM version 6.4.0.

References

Andrejev , O. , Myrberg , K. , Alenius , P. & Lundberg , P. A. 2004. Mean circulation and water exchange in the Gulf of Finland – a study based on three-dimensional modelling. Boreal Environment Research , 9 , 1–16.

Ansper , I. & Fortelius , C. 2001. Verification of HIRLAM marine wind forecasts in the Baltic. International BALTEX Secretariat Publication , 20 , 7–8.

Ansper , I. & Fortelius , C. 2003. Verification of HIRLAM marine wind forecasts in the Baltic. Publicationes Instituti Geographici Universitatis Tartuensis , 93 , 195–204.

Bumke , K. & Hasse , L. 1989. An analysis scheme for determination of true surface winds at sea from ship synoptic wind and pressure observations. Boundary-Layer Meteorology , 47 , 295–308.
doi:10.1007/BF00122335

Funkquist , L. 2001. HIROMB , an operational eddy-resolving model for the Baltic Sea. Bulletin of the Marine Institute , Gdansk , 28 , 7–16.

Holton , J. R. 2004. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology , 4th ed. Elsevier Academic Press , 535 pp.

Källén , E. 1996. HIRLAM Documentation Manual , System 2.5. SMHI , Norrköping , Sweden , 180 pp.

Keevallik , S. 2003. Possibilities of reconstruction of the wind regime on Tallinn Bay. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences , Engineering , 9 , 209–219.

Keevallik , S. & Soomere , T. 2008. Shifts in early spring wind regime in North-East Europe (1955–2007). Climate of the Past , 4 , 147–152.
doi:10.5194/cp-4-147-2008

Keevallik , S. , Männik , A. & Hinnov , J. 2010. Comparison of HIRLAM wind data with measurements at Estonian coastal meteorological stations. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 59 , 90–99.
doi:10.3176/earth.2010.1.07

Launiainen , J. & Saarinen , J. 1982. Examples of comparison of wind and air-sea interaction characteristics on the open sea and in the coastal area of the Gulf of Finland. Geophysica , 19 , 33–46.

Lips , U. , Lips , I. , Liblik , T. & Elken , J. 2008. Estuarine transport versus vertical movement and mixing of water masses in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). In US/EU-Baltic Symposium “Ocean Observations , Ecosystem-Based Management & Forecasting” , Tallinn , 27–29 May , 2008 , pp. 326–333. IEEE Conference Proceedings.

Lo , J. M. , Almadani , N. , Tayfun , M. A. & Alajmi , D. 1994. Estimation of winds over the sea from land-based measurements. Ocean Engineering , 21 , 607–628.
doi:10.1016/0029-8018(94)90041-8

Mass , C. F. , Ovens , D. , Westrick , K. & Colle , B. A. 2002. Does increasing horizontal resolution produce more skilful forecasts? Bulletin of the American Meteoro­logical Society , 83 , 407–430.
doi:10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083<0407:DIHRPM>2.3.CO;2

Myrberg , K. , Ryabchenko , V. , Isaev , A. , Vankevich , R. , Andrejev , O. , Bendtsen , J. , Erichsen , A. , Funkquist , L. , Inkala , A. , Neelov , I. , Rasmus , K. , Rodriguez Medina , M. , Raudsepp , U. , Passenko , J. , Söderkvist , J. , Sokolov , A. , Kuosa , H. , Anderson , T. R. , Lehmann , A. & Skogen , M. D. 2010. Validation of three-dimensional hydrodynamic models in the Gulf of Finland based on a statistical analysis of a six-model ensemble. Boreal Environment Research , 15 , 3.

Niros , A. , Vihma , T. & Launiainen , J. 2002. Marine meteoro­logical conditions and air-sea exchange processes over the northern Baltic Sea in 1990s. Geophysica , 38 , 59–87.

Pettersson , H. , Kahma , K. K. & Tuomi , L. 2010. Predicting wave directions in a narrow bay. Journal of Physical Oceanography , 40 , 155–169.
doi:10.1175/2009JPO4220.1

Pirazzini , R. , Vihma , T. , Launiainen , J. & Tisler , P. 2002. Validation of HIRLAM boundary-layer structures over the Baltic Sea. Boreal Environment Research , 7 , 211–218.

Räämet , A. & Soomere , T. 2010. The wave climate and its seasonal variability in the northeastern Baltic Sea. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 59 , 100–113.
doi:10.3176/earth.2010.1.08

Resio , D. T. & Vincent , C. L. 1977. Estimation of winds over the Great Lakes. Journal of Waterways , Harbors and Coastal Division , American Society of Civil Engineers , 102 , 263–282.

Savijärvi , H. , Niemelä , S. & Tisler , P. 2005. Coastal winds and low-level jets: simulations for sea gulfs. Quarterly Journal of Royal Meteorological Society , 131 , 625–637.
doi:10.1256/qj.03.177

Soomere , T. 2005. Wind wave statistics in Tallinn Bay. Boreal Environment Research , 10 , 103–118.

Soomere , T. & Keevallik , S. 2003. Directional and extreme wind properties in the Gulf of Finland. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences , Engineering , 9 , 73–90.

Soomere , T. , Myrberg , K. , Leppäranta , M. & Nekrasov , A. 2008. The progress in knowledge of physical oceano­graphy of the Gulf of Finland: a review for 1997–2007. Oceanologia , 50 , 287–362.

Zhurbas , V. , Laanemets , J. & Vahtera , E. 2008. Modeling of the mesoscale structure of coupled upwelling/downwelling events and the related input of nutrients to the upper mixed layer in the Gulf of Finland , Baltic Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research – Oceans , 113 , C05004.

Tisler , P. , Gregow , E. , Niemelä , S. & Savijärvi , H. 2007. Wind field prediction in coastal zone: operational model evaluation and simulations with increased horizontal resolution. Journal of Coastal Research , 23 , 721–730.
doi:10.2112/05-0450.1

[USACE] US Army Corps of Engineers. 2002. Coastal Engineering Manual. Chapter 2: Meteorology and wave climate [CD].

Uiboupin , R. & Laanemets , J. 2009. Upwelling characteristics derived from satellite sea surface temperature data in the Gulf of Finland , Baltic Sea. Boreal Environment Research , 14 , 297–304.

[WMO] WMO Guide to the Applications to Marine Climatology 2001. WMO Publication No. 781. Geneva.
 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 68, Issue 3, 2019




Publishing schedule:

No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December