headerpos: 12198
 
 
 

Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 1736-7530 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-6046 (print)
Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, series Physics & Mathematics and  Chemistry
Published since 1952

Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences

ISSN 1736-7530 (electronic)   ISSN 1736-6046 (print)
Formerly: Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, series Physics & Mathematics and  Chemistry
Published since 1952
Publisher
Journal Information
» Editorial Board
» Editorial Policy
» Archival Policy
» Article Publication Charges
» Copyright and Licensing Policy
Guidelines for Authors
» For Authors
» Instructions to Authors
» LaTex style files
Guidelines for Reviewers
» For Reviewers
» Review Form
Open Access
List of Issues
» 2019
» 2018
» 2017
» 2016
» 2015
» 2014
» 2013
» 2012
» 2011
» 2010
» 2009
» 2008
Vol. 57, Issue 4
Vol. 57, Issue 3
Vol. 57, Issue 2
Vol. 57, Issue 1
» Back Issues Phys. Math.
» Back Issues Chemistry
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google. Phys. Math.
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google. Chemistry
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google Engineering
» Back issues (full texts)
  in Google Ecology
» Back issues in ETERA Füüsika, Matemaatika jt
Subscription Information
» Prices
Internet Links
Support & Contact
Publisher
» Staff
» Other journals

Extractability of heavy metals in cyclone ash; pp. 100–106

(Full article in PDF format) doi: 10.3176/proc.2008.2.04


Authors

Risto Pöykiö, Hannu Rönkkömäki, Hannu Nurmesniemi, Toomas Tenno, Lilli Paama

Abstract

Landfill disposal is the only reasonable option for cyclone ash due to its elevated concentrations of the heavy metals Cd (25 mg kg–1; d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg–1; d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg–1; d.w.), and Hg (1.7 mg kg–1; d.w.). The distribution of heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, V, and Ba) after a three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure between the exchangeable (CH3COOH), easily reduced (NH2OH–HCl), and oxidizable (H2O2 + CH3COONH4) fractions showed that the highest concentra­tions of most of the heavy metals occurred in the oxidizable fraction. This indicates that a major part of the heavy metals retained in the cyclone ash originating from a small-scale (6 MW) municipal district heating plant incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood waste and bark) are not easily liberated under the conditions normally found in nature.

Keywords

environmental research, air pollution, ash, cyclone, extraction, heavy metals, waste.

References

  1. Ecke , H. , Sakanakura , H. , Matsuto , T. , Tanaka , N. and Lagerkvist , A. State of the art treatment for municipal solid waste incineration residues in Japan. Waste Manage. Res. , 2000 , 18 , 41–51.
doi:10.1034/j.1399-3070.2000.00097.x

  2. Murakawa , T. Technology of a new type of treatment system used simultaneously on flue gas and its dust. Fuel Energy Abstr. , 1998 , 39 , 64.
doi:10.1016/S0140-6701(97)86042-0

  3. Ecke , H. , Menad , N. and Lagerkvist , A. Treatment-oriented characterization of dry scrubber residue from munici­pal solid waste incineration. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage. , 2002 , 4 , 117–126.

  4. Filgueiras , A. , Lavilla , I. and Bendicho , C. Chemical sequential extraction for metal partitioning in environ­mental solid samples. J. Environ. Monit. , 2002 , 4 , 823–857.
doi:10.1039/b207574c

  5. Kosson , D. , van der Sloot , H. , Sanchez , F. and Garra­brants , A. An integrated framework for evaluat­ing leaching in waste management and utilization of secondary materials. Environ. Eng. Sci. , 2002 , 19 , 159–204.
doi:10.1089/109287502760079188

  6. Nurmesniemi , H. , Pöykiö , R. , Kuokkanen , T. and Rämö , J. Chemical sequential extraction of heavy metals and sulphur in bottom ash and in fly ash from a pulp and paper mill complex. Waste Manage. Res. , 2007 , 25 , 1–12.

  7. Dahl , O. , Nurmesniemi , H. and Pöykiö , R. Sequential extrac­tion partitioning of metals , sulfur , and phosphorus in bottom ash from a coal-fired power plant. Int. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. , 2008 , 88 , 61–73.
doi:10.1080/03067310701461615

  8. Nurmesniemi , H. and Pöykiö , R. Leachability of metals in grate-fired boiler wood ash from a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW). J. Res. Sci. Technol. , 2006 , 3 , 217–225.

  9. SFS-EN , 2000. The European standard SFS-EN 13037. Soil improvers and growing media. Determination of pH. Finnish Standards Association SFS. Finnish Environment Institute , Helsinki. 2000.

10. SFS-EN , 2000. The European standard SFS-EN 12880. Characterization of sludge. Determination of dry residue and water content. Finnish Standards Associa­tion SFS. Finnish Environment Institute , Helsinki. 2000.

11. SFS-EN , 2000. The European Standard SFS-EN 12879. Characterization of sludge. Determination of loss on ignition of dry mass. Finnish Standards Association SFS. Finnish Environment Institute , Helsinki. 2000.

12. SFS-EN , 2001. The European Standard SFS-EN 13137. Characterization of waste. Determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in waste , sludge and sediments. Finnish Standards Association SFS. General Industry Federation of Finland , Helsinki. 2001 , 1–21.

13. USEPA Method 3051 , 1992. Microwave assisted acid digestion of sediments , sludges , soils and oils. Washington DC , United States. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/SW-846/3052.pdf , accessed in November 2007.

14. Van Herck , P. and Vandecasteele , C. Evaluation of the use of a sequential extraction procedure for the charac­terization and treatment of metal containing solid waste. Waste Manage. , 2001 , 21 , 685–694.
doi:10.1016/S0956-053X(01)00011-3

15. Adriano , D. and Weber , J. Influence of fly ash on soil physical properties and turfgrass establishment. J. Environ. Qual. , 2001 , 30 , 596–601.

16. Pöykiö , R. , Kuokkanen , T. , Nurmesniemi , H. and Kujala , K. Extractability and bioavailability of heavy metals and sulfur in bottom ash and fly ash from an industrial power plant. J. Solid Waste Technol. Manage. , 2007 , 33 , 171–182.

17. Earle , C. , Rhue , D. and Earle , J. Mercury in a municipal solid waste landfill. Waste Manage. Res. , 17 , 305–312.

18. Das , A. , Chakroborty , R. , Ververa , M. and de la Guardia , M. Metal speciation in solid matrices. Talanta , 1995 , 42 , 1007–1030.
doi:10.1016/0039-9140(95)01557-R

19. Pöykiö , R. , Nurmesniemi , H. and Keiski , R. L. Environ­mental risk assessment of heavy metal extractability in a biosludge from the biological wastewater treatment plant of a pulp and paper mill. Environ. Monit. Assess. , 2007 , 128 , 153–164.
doi:10.1007/s10661-006-9301-y

20. Pöykiö , R. , Nurmesniemi , H. , Perämäki , P. , Kuokka­nen , T. and Välimäki , I. Leachability of metals in fly ash from a pulp and paper mill complex and environ­mental risk characterisation for eco-efficient utiliza­tion of fly ash as a fertilizer. Chem. Speciation Bioavailability , 2005 , 1 , 1–9.

21. Svensson , B. M. , Mårtensson , L. , Mathiasson , L. and Eskils­son , L. Leachability testing of metallic wastes. Waste Manage. Res. , 2005 , 23 , 457–467.
doi:10.1177/0734242X05058684

22. Rauret , G. Extraction procedures for the determination of heavy metals in contaminated soil and sediment. Talanta , 1998 , 46 , 449–455.
doi:10.1016/S0039-9140(97)00406-2

23. Kazi , T. G. , Jamali , M. K. , Kazi , G. H. , Arain , M. B. , Afridi , H. I. and Siddiqui , A. Evaluating the mobility of toxic metals in untreated industrial wastewater sludge using a BCR sequential extraction procedure and a leaching test. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. , 2005 , 383 , 297–304.
doi:10.1007/s00216-005-0004-y

24. Smichowski , P. , Polla , G. and Gómez , D. Metal fractiona­tion of atmospheric aerosols via sequential chemical extraction: a review. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. , 2005 , 381 , 302–316.
doi:10.1007/s00216-004-2849-x

 
Back

Current Issue: Vol. 68, Issue 3, 2019




Publishing schedule:
No. 1: 20 March
No. 2: 20 June
No. 3: 20 September
No. 4: 20 December